12 Jul 2017, Henry David Thoreau: 200th birthday

Henry David Thoreau, 12 Jul 1817 – 6 May 1862

1845-1847: Life in the woods near Concord (MA), in a wooden cabin (built on the premises owned by his friend Ralph Waldo Emerson), near Walden Pond


Visited in 1988: Walden pond, near Concord (MA)

Wooden sign #1: “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived.” Thoreau. Sheltered within a house he built on the 10 x 15 marked area, Henry David Thoreau lived at Walden from July 4, 1845 to September 6, 1847.

Wooden sign #2: Thoreau’s cairn follows an ancient tradition of erecting stone pile markers. In June, 1872, Mrs. Mary Adams, a visitor from Iowa, and Bronson Alcott of Concord, placed the first stones to mark the site of Henry Thoreau’s small house. Admirers continue to add stones in tribute to Thoreaus’s achievements as a writer, naturalist, philosopher, and individualist.


See below / siehe unten:

  • Frank Schäfer, Taz 24.12.16: Leben lernen
  • Randall Fuller, Nature 15.6.17: Natural history: Thoreau’s debt to Darwin
  • Willy Hochkeppel, SZ 28.6.17: Er aß kein Fleisch, heiratete nie
  • Sylvia Prahl, Taz 10.7.17: Dem eigenen Begehren folgen und Bohnen züchten
  • Jutta Person, SZ 12.7.17: Fische schwammen ihm in die Hand.

HD Thoreau (1854): Walden.

1981 edition: Peregrine Smith Book, Gibbs M Smith, Inc., Salt Lake City (UT) – With an introductory essay “Down the river with Henry Thoreau” by Edward Abbey.

[Text portions selected in mid-1980s / Meine Textauswahl: Mitte 1980er Jahre]

Economy

I see young men, my townsmen, whose misfortune it is to have inherited farms, houses, barns, cattle, and farming tools; for these are more easily acquired than got rid of. (p.5) … What a man thinks of himself, that it is which determines, or rather indicates, his fate. … The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation. (p.7) … We are made to exaggerate the importance of what work we do; and yet how much is not done by us! (p.10) … necessary of life … The necessaries of life … may, accurately enough, be distributed under the several heads of Food, Shelter, Clothing, and Fuel … (p.11) … at any hour of the day or night, I have been anxious to improve the nick of time… to stand on the meeting of two eternities, the past and future … (p.15) Shall we always study to obtain more of … things, and not sometimes to be content with less? (pp.32-3) … students … should not play life, or study it merely, … but earnestly live it from beginning to end. (p.46) … We are in great haste to construct a magnetic telegraph from Maine to Texas; but Maine and Texas, it may be, have nothing important to communicate. (p.47) … the swiftest traveller is he that goes afoot. (p.48) … Thank God, I can sit and I can stand without the aid of a furniture warehouse. (p.59) … I am convinced, both by faith and experience, that to maintain one’s self on this earth is not a hardship but a pastime, if we will live simply and wisely… (p.63)

Where I lived, and what I lived for

… a man is rich in proportion to the number of things which he can afford to let alone. (p.74) … Old Cato, whose “De Re Rusticâ” is my “Cultivator” (p.76) … It is well to have some water in your neighbourhood. (p.78) (cf. 21 Jan 2017) … “There are none happy in the world but beings who enjoy a vast horizon” – said Damodara (p.79) … The morning, which is the most memorable season of the day, is the awakening hour. (p.80) … I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to practise resignation, unless it was quite necessary. (p.82) … Our life is frittered away by detail. …. Simplicity, simplicity, simplicity! … Simplify, simplify. (p.82) … Why should we live with such hurry, and waste of life? We are determined to be starved before we are hungry. … As for work, we haven’t any of consequence. We have the Saint Vitus’ dance, and cannot possibly keep our heads still. (p.84) … I am sure that I never read any memorable news in the newspaper. If we read of one man robbed, or murdered … or one cow run over on the Western Railroad … – we never need read of another. If you are acquainted with the principle, what do you care for a myriad instances and applications? (p.85) … Time is but the stream I go a-fishing in. (p.88)

Reading

My residence was more favourable, not only to thought, but to serious reading, than a university … (p.90) … what are the classics but the noblest recorded thoughts of man? (p.91) … Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. (p.92) … Books are the treasured wealth of the world and the fit inheritance of generations and nations. (p.93)

Sounds

Will you be a reader, a student merely, or a seer? Read your fate, see what is before you, and walk out into futurity. (p.101) … I am refreshed and expanded when the freight train rattles past me … reminding me of foreign parts, of coral reefs, and Indian oceans, and tropical climes, and the extent of the globe. (p.108) … serenaded by a hooting owl. Near at hand you could fancy it the most melancholy sound in Nature … (p.113) … owls … represent the stark twilight and unsatisfied thoughts which all have. (p.114)

Solitude

I believe that men are generally still a little afraid of the dark, though the witches are all hung, and Christianity and candles have been introduced. (p.118) … I find it wholesome to be alone the greater part of the time. (p.122) … I am no worshipper of Hygeia, who was the daughter of that old herb-doctor Aesculapius, and who is represented on monuments holding a serpent in one hand, and in the other a cup out of which the serpent sometimes drinks; but rather of Hebe, cup-bearer to Jupiter, who was the daughter of Juno and wild lettuce, and who had the power of restoring gods and men to the vigor of youth. (p.125)

Visitors

Individuals, like nations, must have suitable broad and natural boundaries … between them. (p.128)

The bean field

Ancient poetry and mythology suggest, at least, that husbandry was once a sacred art. (p.150) … By avarice and selfishness … the landscape is deformed, husbandry is degraded with us … Cato says that the profits of agriculture are particularly pious or just … (p.151)

The village

Every day or two I strolled to the village to hear some of the gossip … (p.153) … One afternoon … I was seized and put into jail, because … I did not pay a tax to, or recognize the authority of, the state which buys and sells men, women, and children … (p.157)

The ponds

… in September or October, Walden is a perfect forest mirror, set round with stones … Sky water …a mirror which no stone can crack … (p.173)

Baker farm

Enjoy the land, but own it not. Through want of enterprise … men are what they are, buying and selling, and spending their lives like serfs. (p.190)

Higher laws

I have no doubt that it is a part of the destiny of the human race … to leave off eating animals, as surely as the savage tribes have left off eating each other when they came in contact with the more civilized. (p.197) … I believe that water is the only drink for a wise man … (p.198)

Brute neighbors

… battle of ants … (p.209ff)

House-warming

Every man looks at his wood-pile with a kind of affection. (p.229)

Former inhabitants, and winter visitors

Winter animals

… muskrats … foxes … red squirrels …jays …  hounds … hares … rabbits (p.247ff) … Squirrels and wild mice disputed for my store of nuts. (p.255)

The pond in winter

Ice is an interesting subject for contemplation (pp.269-70) … The pure Walden water is mingled with the sacred water of the Ganges. With favouring winds it is wafted past the site of the fabulous islands of Atlantis and the Hesperides … (p.271)

Spring

The earth is … living poetry like the leaves of a tree … a living earth … (pp.280-1) … As every season seems best to us in its turn, so the coming in of spring is like the creation of Cosmos out of Chaos and the realization of the Golden Age. (p.285) … I finally left Walden September 6th, 1847. (p.290)

Conclusion

In proportion as he simplifies his life, the laws of the universe will appear less complex. (p.294) … If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. (p.296) … Love your life, poor as it is. (p.298) … The sun is but a morning-star. (p.303)


Introductory essay “Down the river with Henry Thoreau” by Edward Abbey [written in Oracle, AZ]

Thoreau’s mind has been haunting mine for most of my life. (p.ix) … Henry was not a hermit. … His celebrated cabin … was two miles from Concord common. A half-hour walk from pond to post-office. Henry lived in it for only two years and two months. (p.xiii) … Spirit both forms and informs the universe, thought the New England transcendentalists, of whom Thoreau was one; all Nature, they believed, is but symbolic of a grretaer spiritual reality within us. (p.xiv) … I do not approve of his fastidious puritanism. (p.xv) … When a publisher shipped back to Thoreau 706 unsellable copies of A week on the Concord & Merrimack Rivers … Henry noted in his Journal, “I now have a library 900 volumes, over 700 of which I wrote myself.” (p.xv) … The man seemingly composed wisecracks  and epigrams even in his sleep. Even on his deathbed. “Henry, have you made your peace with God?” asked a relative. “I am not aware that we have ever quarreled, Aunt,” said Henry. To another visitor, attempting to arouse in Henry a decent Christian concern with the next world, he said, “One world at a time, please.” (p.xxx) … at a time when the giants of New England literature were thought to be Emerson, Hawthorne, … Thoreau was but a minor writer. Not even a major minor writer. Today we see it differently. In the ultimate democracy of time, Henry has well outlived his contemporaries. Hawthorne and Emerson are still read, at least in university English departments, but as for the others, they are forgotten by everyone but specialists in American literature. Thoreau however becomes more significant with each passing decade. (p.xxx) … Henry had many words for every subject, and no last word for any. (p. xl)


Frank Schäfer, taz 24.12.16: Leben lernen. Selbstversuch. Neue Ausgaben von Henry David Thoreau, dem Mitbegründer der US-Literatur.

… ein halsstarriges Landei, das … doch kosmopolitischer und progressiver dachte als die meisten Weltbürger Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts. …kein Provinzler aus Zwang, sondern aus Neigung. Er gehörte dem Kreis der Transzendentalisten … an. Nach deren Lehren spiegelt sich sowieso im kleinsten Detail die große spirituelle Idee … Insofern konnte man ruhig zu Hause bleiben – und konnte Thoreau ganz ohne Ironie von sich behaupten: „Ich habe in Concord große Reisen unternommen.“ … die Imagination seiner märchenhaften Walden-Existenz war … so suggestiv und schön, dass sich die Ökofreaks, Landkommunarden, Waldläufer und Naturapostel zu allen Zeiten gern von ihm anfixen ließen.

Randall Fuller, Nature 15.6.17: Natural history: Thoreau’s debt to Darwin. On the naturalist’s bicentenry, Randall Fuller traces his empirical journey after Walden.

Willy Hochkeppel, SZ 28.6.17: Er aß kein Fleisch, heiratete nie. Frank Schäfer erzählt das Leben des Waldgängers und Rebellen Henry David Thoreau.

Sylvia Prahl, taz 10.7.17: Dem eigenen Begehren folgen und Bohnen züchten. Naturverbunden. Am 12. Juli feiert US-Denker Henry David Thoreau 200. Geburtstag. Frank Schäfer stellt Leben und Werk in einer neuen Biografie vor.

… kauzige Wesensart – die ihm den Beinamen „der furchtbare Thoreau“ einbrachte … konsumkritische Eassay „Walden“ … fortschrittsskeptisches Denken …

Jutta Person, SZ 12.7.17: Fische schwammen ihm in die Hand. Am 12. Juli 1817 wurde Henry David Thoreau geboren. Geburtstagsständchen für einen Flussphilosophen, Beerensammler, Hüttenbauer, Sklavenfluchthelfer, Steuerverweigerer und Neinsager.

… einem der wichtigsten Wortführer der Zivilisationskritik … sein Blockhütten-Bericht „Walden…“ gehört noch heute in jede alternativ-konsumkritische Basisbibliothek … Mitbegründer des amerikanischen „nature writing“ …

9 Jul 2017, Harz: Brocken

Harz national park with Brocken mountain / Nationalpark Harz mit Brocken

Harz national park / Nationalpark Harz

sdr

Situated in the federal states of Saxony-Anhalt and Lower Saxony; mid-range goal: at least 75% of the area without human interference; current activity: reconversion of pine tree timberlands into near-natural forests / In den Bundesländern Sachsen-Anhalt und Niedersachsen; mittelfristiges Ziel: keine menschliche Einmischung auf mindestens 75% der Parkfläche; aktuell: Rückwandlung der Fichtenforste in naturnahe Wälder.


Brocken

  • Altitude 1.141 m, forest line: 1.100 m, visual range in clear days: up to 230 km / Höhe 1.141 m, Waldgrenze bei 1.100 m, Sichtweite an klaren Tagen: bis 230 km
  • Windiest place of Germany; annual average temperature: c. 4° C, about 300 foggy days / Windreichster Ort Deutschlands; Jahresdurchschnittstemperatur ca. 4° C, ca. 300 Nebeltage
  • Boulder field with spheroidal weathering of granite / Blockfeld mit Wollsackverwitterung von Granit
  • Devil’s pulpit: traditional meeting place in Walpurgisnacht (i.e. the night preceding 1 May) for the witches, aiming to sweep away remaining patches of snow; inspired JWGoethe to write the Walpurgis sequence in the “Faust” drama / Teufelskanzel: traditionell trafen sich hier in der Walpurgisnacht (vor dem 1.Mai) die Hexen, um letzten Schnee vom Brocken zu kehren; inspirierte JWGoethe zur Walpurgisszene im „Faust“
  • Brocken garden since 1890, for educational and research purposes / Brockengarten seit 1890, für Bildungs- und Forschungszwecke
  • Brocken train: since 1899; gauge of 100 cm; steam engines / Brockenbahn:seit 1899; Spurweite 100 cm; Dampflokomotiven

Brockenbahn

Hiking ascent (shortest option, altitude difference 500 m): Schierke, abandoned bobsleigh run (Alte Bobbahn), Egerloch stairs, summit / Fußaufstieg (kürzeste Option, mit 500 Höhenmetern): Schierke, Alte Bobbahn, Egerlochstieg, Gipfel

Return path: with Brocken train / Rückweg: mit der Brockenbahn.

 

8 Jul 2017, Clausthal-Zellerfeld incl. Robert Koch

Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Lower Saxony)

  • Marktkirche zum Heiligen Geist in Clausthal, the largest wooden church in Germany, built in the 17th century, Northern German Baroque style / größte Holzkirche Deutschlands, erbaut während des Dreißigjährigen Krieges, Norddeutsches Barock
  • Historic pharmacy; the building includes 64 different faces. Since the early days, to maintain the miners’ health and fitness for work was one of the provident tasks of territorial rulers, codified in the historic mining laws / Historische Bergapotheke; am Gebäude 64 verschiedene Gesichter. “Der Erhalt der Gesundheit und Arbeitsfähigkeit der Bergleute gehörte seit der Entstehung der Oberharzer Bergstädte zu den fürsorglichen Aufgaben der Landesherren. Sie war als Privileg in den sog. Bergfreiheiten fest verankert”, Link
  • Robert Koch, 11.12.1843 (Clausthal) – 27.5.1919 (Baden-Baden), 1890 Honorary citizen of Clausthal, 1905 Nobel prize in medicine; spent his youth in this house / 1890 Ehrenbürger von Clausthal, 1905 Nobelpreis für Medizin; verbrachte seine Jugendzeit in diesem Haus
  • Beauty of wooden buildings in different states of maintenance / Schöne Holzbauten in unterschiedlicher Instandhaltung.

8 Jul 2017, Upper Harz water management system / Oberharzer Wasserkunst, Clausthal-Zellerfeld

In the South East of Clausthal-Zellerfeld, there are four ponds: Unterer / Mittlerer / Oberer Pfauenteich (installed before 1579), and Hirschlerteich (from 1660). Formerly providing energy to the famous mines named Caroline and Dorothea, the ponds are part of the historic Harz Water management system which globally was the largest pre-industrial energy supply system / Süd-östlich von Clausthal-Zellerfeld befinden sich vier Seen: Unterer / Mittlerer / Oberer Pfauenteich (angelegt vor 1579), and Hirschlerteich (aus dem Jahr 1660). Sie versorgten die berühmten Oberharzer Gruben Caroline und Dorothea und gehören zum Oberharzer Wasserregal (Wasserkunst), einem historischen Wasserwirtschaftssystem, welches das größte vorindustrielle Energieversorgungssystem der Welt darstellte.

 

The cascade-shaped ponds, the web of water-ditches (mostly situated along contour lines) and subterranean water courses made it possible to mine at great depth for some 800 years. Providing hydropower, they supported the drainage of mines as well as the haulage and processing of ore (silver, lead, copper, zinc). Today, >100 such ponds are still in existence / Die kaskadenförmig angelegten Teiche sowie das Netz der Wassergräben (meist entlang der Höhenlinien angelegt) und unterirdischen Wasserläufe ermöglichten über 800 Jahre lang Erzabbau in größerer Tiefe; durch Wasserkraft unterstützt wurden Gruben-Entwässerung sowie Erz-Förderung und -verarbeitung (Silber, Blei, Kupfer, Zink). Heute existieren noch >100 dieser Teiche.

The water management system is regarded as a unique symbiosis of culture and nature, and was awarded  UNESCO World Heritage status in 2010. Today, the area features a web of “aqueous” hiking paths  / Diese Wasserkunst gilt als besonderes Beispiel einer Kultur-Natur-Symbiose und ist seit 2010 als UNESCO-Welterbe anerkannt. Diese Kulturlandschaft ist durchzogen von einem Netz von WasserWanderWegen.

 

In Clausthal-Zellerfeld, the ponds mentioned above are reservoirs for today’s drinking water provision system / In Clausthal-Zellerfeld fungieren die erwähnten Teiche heute als Speicherbecken der Trinkwasserversorgung.

14 Jun 2017, Altona: “Frauen zur See – Seefrauen”

FrauenFreiluftGalerie, www.frauenfreiluftgalerie.de/

Mural: Women at sea – Seawomen then and now / Wandgemälde: “Frauen zur See – Seefrauen einst und jetzt”

  • “Ich hab es stets schwerer als meine männlichen Kollegen gehabt”
  • “Von Anfang an war ich voll auf mich gestellt”
  • “Unneröcke an Bord, dat gifft Malheur”

Cf. / Siehe auch: 19 Jan 2014, 23 May 2017

  • Entwurf und Ausführung: Barbara-Kathrin Möbius, Hildegund Schuster, 2011
  • Kuratorin. Elisabeth von Dücker
  • Kooperation. Schiffahrtsmuseum der oldenburgischen Unterweser e.V. (Brake und Elsfleth, www.schiffahrtsmuseum-unterweser.de/)
  • Sponsoring: HAMBURG WASSER; mpz Hamburg e.V.; Aurubis AG; Stempel OHDE